Dual Nationality and Asylum Claims in the UK: Balancing Identity and Protection


In an increasingly globalised world, individuals often find themselves straddling multiple identities and nationalities. Dual nationality, the legal status of an individual who is a citizen of two countries, presents both opportunities and challenges, particularly in the context of seeking asylum. Let us have a look at the reasons for the same.

Legal Framework:

The legal landscape governing dual nationality and asylum claims in the UK is multifaceted and shaped by both domestic legislation and international conventions. Under UK law, individuals have the right to seek asylum if they fear persecution in their country of origin due to factors such as race, religion, nationality, political opinion, or membership in a particular social group. There are various conventions that form a vital part of the legal framework for international protection of refugees. These conventions establish fundamental principles and guidelines for the treatment of refugees, encompassing individuals with dual nationality.

However, the presence of dual nationality complicates asylum claims, particularly within the context of UK immigration law. The British Nationality Act 1981 is pivotal in defining UK citizenship, embracing jus soli (birthright citizenship) and jus sanguinis (citizenship by descent). Through this law, individuals gain British citizenship via birth, descent, naturalisation, or registration. However, this may complicate asylum claims for dual nationals, particularly if they hold citizenship in a country perceived as safe by UK immigration authorities.

Practical Implications:

Navigating the asylum process as a dual national requires careful consideration of legal, logistical, and practical factors. Dual nationals may encounter issues related to travel documentation, diplomatic protection, and consular assistance, particularly if their two countries of citizenship have conflicting laws or political tensions. Additionally, asylum seekers with dual nationality may face heightened scrutiny during the asylum interview process, as immigration officials assess the credibility of their claims and evaluate their ties to their countries of origin.

Furthermore, the concept of “internal flight alternative” may complicate asylum claims for dual nationals. This principle suggests that individuals fleeing persecution should seek refuge within their own country if it provides a safe alternative to fleeing abroad. For dual nationals, determining whether their other country of citizenship constitutes a viable internal flight alternative can be challenging, especially if the situation in that country is also precarious.

Ethical Considerations:

The intersection of dual nationality and asylum raises important ethical questions regarding identity, belonging, and the duty of states to protect vulnerable individuals. On one hand, dual nationals may possess greater resources and options for seeking refuge compared to individuals with only one nationality. They may have access to consular assistance, social networks, and financial resources that facilitate their integration into the host country. However, this should not diminish their entitlement to asylum if they face genuine risks of persecution in their country of origin.

Moreover, denying asylum solely on the basis of dual nationality risks undermining the principle of non-discrimination and contravening the spirit of international refugee law. Each asylum claim should be assessed on its own merits, taking into account the individual’s personal circumstances, the nature of the persecution they face, and the availability of protection in their countries of citizenship. Furthermore, states have an obligation to uphold the principle of non-refoulement, which prohibits the return of individuals to countries where they face serious threats to their life or freedom.


Dual nationality presents both opportunities and challenges for individuals seeking asylum in the UK. While it may afford them certain advantages in terms of mobility and access to resources, it also introduces complexities in establishing their eligibility for protection. Asylum claims should be evaluated on the basis of the individual’s need for refuge and protection from persecution, irrespective of their citizenship status. Upholding the principles of fairness, non-discrimination, and respect for human rights is essential in addressing the complex intersection of dual nationality and asylum in the UK.

How can we help?

XT24’s  Immigration Team is highly experienced in advising on UK asylum matters. If you have any questions arising from this blog, please do not hesitate to contact us for advice, send us an e-mail, or, alternatively, follow us on X, Facebook, Instagram, or LinkedIn to stay-up-to-date.

The information in this blog is for general information purposes only and does not purport to be comprehensive or to provide legal advice. Whilst every effort is made to ensure the information and law is current as of the date of publication it should be stressed that, due to the passage of time, this does not necessarily reflect the present legal position. XT24 accepts no responsibility for loss which may arise from accessing or reliance on information contained in this blog. For formal advice on the current law please do not hesitate to contact XT24. Legal advice is only provided pursuant to a written agreement, identified as such, and signed by the client and by or on behalf of XT24.

Visa Specialist / Coordinator
Immigration Attorney